Suitable time to harvesting of gram

  • When most of the pod is yellow, then gram must be harvested.
  • When the plant dries, and the leaves turn reddish-brown, and the leaves begin to fall, the crop is ready for harvesting.
  • Due to delay in the crop drying and harvesting for a long time, the pods start falling, which reduces yield, so harvesting should be done if the gram has moisture up to about 15 percent.
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Weed Management in Gram

  • Weeds affected the yield of a gram by the compete with the plant for nutrient, shade, light, and space and weeds are also attract many insects, pests and diseases and decrease the quality of seeds.

  • Chenopodium album, Melilotus indica, Lathyrus tuberosus, Polygonum aviculare Euphorbia exigua, Sinapis arvensis, etc. are the major weeds of a gram.

  • There are two weddings that should be done in the gram field at 20-25 days after sowing and 50-55 days after sowing.

  • But lack of labor, use pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin 30 EC @ 2.5 lit./hac. formally in 500-liter water. Then after 20-25 days of sowing may apply first weeding. Then second weeding may apply 50-55 days after sowing.

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Seed Treatment of Chickpea (Gram)

  • Gram should be treated with carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% or Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% at the rate of 2 gm per kg seed before sowing avoids fungal diseases like root rot, Collar rot and damping off.

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Pod Borer in Gram(Chickpea)

Pod borer is a pest that causes heavy damage to chickpea. In fact, this pest is reported to have caused yield loss of up to 21%. The pest is reported to cause about 50 to 60%  damage to the chick pods. Apart from chickpea the pest also attacks pigeon pea, sunflower, cotton, chili, sorghum, groundnut, tomato, and other agricultural and horticultural crops. It is a devastating pest that attacks pulses and oilseeds.

Infestation: The infestation starts usually a fortnight after germination and becomes serious just after the initiation of flower bud coupled with cloudy and humid weather. Females lay several small white eggs. Upon hatching in 3-4 days the caterpillars feed on the leaves for a short time and subsequently attack the pods. A full-grown caterpillar is about 34 mm long, greenish to brownish in color with scattered, short, white hair and buries itself in the soil to make an earthen cell inside which it pupates. The life cycle is completed in about 30-45 days. The pest completes eight generations in a year.

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Control of Fusarium Wilt in Gram

Control of Fusarium Wilt in Gram:- Wilt in chickpea (Gram) caused by Fusarium oxysporum fungi. Warm and humid environment is favourable for it. the prevention of the disease, the following precautions have to be taken.

  • Conserved soil moisture during Monsoon.
  • Level up after deep ploughing (6-7 inch).
  • Use disease-free seed.
  • Follow 6-year crop rotations.
  • Grow resistant varieties.
  • Seed treatment with Carboxin 37.%+ Thiram 37.5% @ 2 gm /kg or Trichoderma viride @ 5 gm/kg.
  • Avoid sowing when temperature are high. Sown in second and third week of October.
  • Irrigation in November-December.
  • Apply Mycorrhiza @ 4 kg/acre at 15 days after sowing.
  • Spraying Thiaphanate methyl 75% WP @ 300 gm/acre at before flowering.
  • Spraying Propiconazole 25% EC @ 125 ml/acre at pod formation stage.

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Prevention of Fusarium Wilt in Gram

Control of Fusarium Wilt in Gram:- Wilt in chickpea (Gram) caused by Fusarium oxysporum fungi. A warm and humid environment is favorable for it. the prevention of the disease, the following precautions have to be taken.

  • Conserved soil moisture during Monsoon.
  • Level up after deep plowing (6-7 inches).
  • Use disease-free seed.
  • Follow 6-year crop rotations.
  • Grow resistant varieties.
  • Seed treatment with Carboxin 37.%+ Thiram 37.5% @ 2 gm /kg or Trichoderma viride @ 5 gm/kg.
  • Avoid sowing when the temperature is high. Sown in the second and third weeks of October.
  • Irrigation in November-December.
  • Apply Mycorrhiza @ 4 kg/acre at 15 days after sowing.
  • Spraying Thiaphanate methyl 75% WP @ 300 gm/acre at before flowering.
  • Spraying Propiconazole 25% EC @ 125 ml/acre at pod formation stage.

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Symptoms of Fusarium wilt

  • Causal organism: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Vasinfevtum
  • Wilt is one of major disease of cotton. 
  • Discolorations of leaves start from the margins and spread towards midribs.
  • The veins become darker, narrower and spots.
  • Browning and blackening of vascular tissues.

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Gram harvesting

Gram harvesting

  • When most of the pod is yellow, then gram must be harvested.
  • Moisture should be around 15 percent in gram.
  • When the plant gets dry and the leaves become red brown and the leaves begin to fall, then the crop is ready for harvesting.

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How to flower promotion in chickpea

  • We can promote flowering and takes high yield through given below products.
  • Spray Homobrassinolide 0.04% W/w 100-120 ml/acre.
  • Apply seaweed extract 180-200 gm/acre.
  • Use micro-nutrients 200 gm/acre specially boron.
  • Spray 2 gm/acre gibberellic acid.

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Weed Management in Gram

Weed Management in Gram:-

  • Weeds affected yield of gram by the compete with plant for nutrient, shade, light and space and weeds are also attract to many insects, pest and diseases and decrease the quality of seeds.
  • Chenopodium album, Melilotus indica, Lathyrus tuberosus, Polygonum aviculare Euphorbia exigua, Sinapis arvensis etc. are the major weeds of gram.
  • There are two weeding should be done in gram field at 20-25 days after sowing and 50-55 days after sowing.
  • But lack of labour, use pre-emergence weedicide pendimethalin 30 EC @ 2.5 lit./hac. formally in 500 litre water. Then after 20-25 days of sowing may apply first weeding. Then second weeding may apply 50-55 days after sowing.

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