Control of Leaf Miner in Cowpea

Leaf Miner in Cowpea:-

Indentification:-

  • The adults are small delicate flies about 1/6 inch in length.
  • They are black and yellowish colour.
  • Eggs are round, microscopic and vary in colour from yellow to white.
  • The larvae, white yellowish coloration near the head are about 1/6 inch when fully grown.

Damage:-

  • A female lays about 300 to 400 eggs thrusting these in to leaf tissues with the help of sharp and pointed ovipositor.
  • On hatching the maggots mines the leaves in a zigzag fashion feeding on mesophyll with in these mines.
  • The infestation of this fly can easily be recognized by the presence of shiny whitish streaks on the leaves against the green background.
  • Adults puncture the leaves and feed on exuding sap.
  • The flowering and fruiting capacity of in infested plants is adversely affected.

Control:-

  • Spray the crop with Dichlorovos (2 ml/lit) +Neem oil (2 Ml/litre ) or Cartap hydrochloride 75 SG (1.5 gm/Litre) of water at fortnight intervals starting from 25 days after sowing to control the pest.

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Red Pumpkin Beetle in Cucurbitaceae

Red Pumpkin Beetle-

Identification-

  • Eggs are spherical in shape and yellowish pink in colour, changes in to orange after a couple of day.
  • Freshly hatched grubs are dirty white in colour where as fall grown ones are creamy yellow and about 22mm long.
  • Pupae are pale white and are found in earthen cells 15 to 25mm deep in the soil.
  • Adult beetles are 6-10mm long and having glistering red to yellowish brown elytra that are infirmly covered with fine punctures.

Damage-

  • The grubs feed on the roots and underground portion of host plants and fruits touching the soil.
  • The damaged roots and infested underground, portion of stems start rotting due to secondary infection by saproliytic fungi, and the unripe fruits of such vines dry up.
  • Infested fruits become unfit for human consumption.
  • Adult beetles feed voraciously on leaf lamina making irregular holes.
  • They prefer young seedling and tender leaves and damage may even kill the seedlings.

Control-

  • As insect pupate in the soil, deep ploughing soon after the crop exposes and kill grubs and pupae.
  • Apply Cartap hydrochloride 3 G granule 3-4cm deep in soil near base of germinated seedlings.
  • Spray the crop with Cypermethrin 25% EC (1 ml/lit) +Dimethoat 30% EC (2 Ml/litre ) or Carbaryl 50% WP (3 gm/Litre) of water at fortnight intervals starting from 25 days after transplanting to control the pest.

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Cauliflower Diamondback Moth (DBM)

Identification

  • Eggs are yellowish-white with greenish tings.
  • The caterpillars are 7-12 mm in length, pale yellowish green in colour with fine erect back hair scattered all over the body.
  • Adults are 8-10mm long greyish-brown in colour having pale whitish narrow wing inner yellow margins.
  • The adult female lays eggs on the leaves either singly or in groups.
  • White markings along the back of the fore wings which when folded from a diamond shaped pattern in adult diamond back moth.

Damage

  • Small slender green caterpillars on emergence feed on the leafs epidemics and later make holes in the leaves.
  • Severely affected leaves are completely skletonised.

Control

  • ¬†For the prevention of diamond back moth, bold mustard should be sown in 2 lines after every 25 lines of cabbage/Cauliflower.
  • Spray the crop with Profenofos 50% EC (3 ml/lit) or Spinosad 25% SC (0.5 Ml/litre ) or Indoxacarb (1.5 Ml/Litre) of water at fortnight intervals starting from 25 days after transplanting to control the pest.

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Shoot and Fruit Borer in Brinjal

Identification

  • The female moth lays eggs individually on the shoots of young brinjal plants.
  • Creamy-white eggs are laid singly or in groups on the undersides of the leaves, stems, flower bunds or the base of the fruit.
  • The young caterpillar id 15-18mm long, dull white and turns light pink as it matures.
  • The adult moth is white with a pink or bluish tinge and brownish on its wings.
  • The newly hatched larva prefers to bore directly into the fruit.
  • When feeding is complete pupation occurs on stems, dried shoots, or among fallen leaves.
  • Multiple over lapping generations occur in warm climates.

Damage

  • The damage of the fruit starts soon after transplanting and continues till harvesting of the fruits.
  • Short pinkish larva of the pest initially bore into the terminal shoots resulting in withering and drying of the shoot.

Control

  • Continuous cropping of brinjal on the same piece of land should be avoided.
  • Fruits showing boring should be picked and destroyed.
  • Spray the crop with cypermethrin 25% EC (0.5ml/lit) or Cloropyrifos 20 % EC (4 mill ) of per litre water at fortnight intervals starting from 35 days after transplanting to control the pest.
  • Best results are obtained when all the affected fruits are removed before spraying.

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Management of Pea Pod Borer

Pea Pod Borer:- The larva of this insect cuts the pedicel of the flower and feeds on the stalk. Single larva damages many flower stalks. The larva feed on the leaves initially stage then bore in to the basal portion of stalks and inter the pod feeds on soft grains.

Management:- Plough deeply, Clean cultivation to expose the resting pupae. Trap cropping with crops likes Tomato and destroying them when the population is high and mechanically remove the adults and larvae from the trap crop. Use of inter crops like maize cow pea and brinjal significantly helps in reducing the pest population. Install the bird perches in the field. Application of HaNPV at the rate of 100 LE per acre along with 0.5 % jiggery and 0.1% boric acid at egg hatch stage and repeat at 15-20 days. Use of chemicals should comprise 2.00 ml profenophos 50 EC per litre of water as ovicides. Spraying neem seed kernel extract 5% in the early stage. If the infestation is sevre, spraying 0.5 ml Indoxacarb 14.5% SC or 0.1 ml Spinosad 45 SC or 2.5 ml Chlorpyriphos 20 EC can be applied.

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Management of Stem fly in Pea

Avoid sowing of the crop earlier than mid-October to check the attack of the pest. Remove and destroy all the affected branches during the initial stages of attack. Sowing the crop in the second fortnight of October to escape the damage of the pest. Apply 7.5 kg of phorate 10G or 25 kg of carbofuran 3 G per ha in furrows at the time of sowing. On the crop, spray three times 750 ml of oxydemeton methyl 25 EC in 750 L of water per ha. The first application should be just after germination and the other two at an interval of 2 weeks each.

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Control of leaf miner in Tomato

Leaf miner is the major pest in Tomato crop that causes damage in early stage. to control leaf miner in Tomato, spraying of traizofos 40% EC @ 40 Ml/ 15 litre water or Cartap hydrochloride 50% SP @ 25 Gm/15 litre water should be done.

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