Maturity index of wheat

Maturity index of wheat:-The crop is harvested when the grains become hard and the straw becomes yellow dry and brittle. Cereals are harvested at about 15 percent of the moisture in the grain.

  • The crop is harvested when the grains become hard and the straw becomes yellow dry and brittle.
  • Cereals are harvested at about 15 percent of the moisture in the grain.
  • Wheat should be yellow at the time of wheat harvest.
  • Wheat harvesting is done at 110-130 days after sowing.

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Control of Root Aphid in Wheat

Control of Root Aphid in Wheat:-This insect is active from November to February. Damage is more in rainfed and late sown crop. Yellowing of young plants is observed due to root aphids………..

  • This insect is active from November to February.
  • Damage is more in rainfed and late sown crop.
  • Yellowing of young plants is observed due to root aphids. In this case minute yellowish brown aphids may be present near the base or on the roots of the plant.
  • Aphids also vector a viral disease named barley yellow dwarf virus (BYD). Yield of infected wheat plants can be reduced by 50%.

Control-

  • Avoid late sowing.
  • Avoid use excess nitrogen fertilizers.
  • If the infestation in standing crop, Spray imidacloprid 17.8% SL @ 60-70 ml/acre.
  • Or apply thiamethoxam 25% WG @ 100 gm/acre in soil with fertilizer/Sand/soil before irrigation.

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Management of Black Rust disease in Wheat

Management of Black Rust disease in Wheat:-Pustules can be seen after 10-20 days of infection. In addition to wheat it can also attack barley, rye and triticale. Black rust produces………..

  • Pustules can be seen after 10-20 days of infection.
  • In addition to wheat it can also attack barley, rye and triticale.
  • Black rust produces reddish-brown spore masses in oval, elongated or spindle-shaped pustules on the stems and leaves.
  • Unlike leaf rust, pustules erupt through both sides of the leaves.
  • Ruptured pustules release masses of stem rust spores.
  • Black rust develops at higher temperatures than the other wheat rusts within a range of 18-30°C.

Management-

  • Destroy volunteer wheat plants. Crop rotation is very important.
  • Growing resistant varieties is an economical and environmentally friendly way of disease reduction.
  • During the growing season, active crop monitoring is very important for an early detection of diseases.
  • Avoid repeated use of fungicides with the same active ingredient.
  • Spray Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 320 gm/acre or Propiconazole 25% EC 240 gm/acre.

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Management of Brown Rust disease in Wheat

Management of Brown Rust disease in Wheat:- Leaf rust is caused by the fungus. The first signs of the disease (sporulation) occur 10-14 days after infection. Leaf rust produces reddish-orange……

    • Leaf rust is caused by the fungus.
    • The first signs of the disease (sporulation) occur 10-14 days after infection
    • Leaf rust produces reddish-orange coloured spores which occur in small, 1.5 mm, circular to oval-shaped pustules.
    • These are found on the top surface of the leaves, distinguishing leaf rust from stem rust which is found on both surfaces of the leaf.
    • The spores require 15 to 20ºC temperature and free moisture (dew/rain/irrigation) on the leaves to successfully infect wheat.

 

Management-

  • Crop rotation is very important.
  • Growing resistant varieties is an economical and environmentally friendly way of disease reduction.
  • During the growing season, active crop monitoring is very important for an early detection of diseases.
  • Avoid repeated use of fungicides with the same active ingredient.
  • Spray Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 320 gm/acre or Propiconazole 25% EC 240 ml/acre.

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Management of Yellow Rust disease in Wheat

Management of Yellow Rust disease in Wheat:- Stripe rust is caused by the fungus. It is easily distinguished from other wheat rusts by the orange-yellow spores. Which produce small, closely packed pustules developing into stripes along the length of the leaf veins…….

  • Stripe rust is caused by the fungus.
  • It is easily distinguished from other wheat rusts by the orange-yellow spores.
  • Which produce small, closely packed pustules developing into stripes along the length of the leaf veins.
  • The spores occur on the upper surface of the leaves, the leaf sheaths, awns and inside of the glumes.
  • Pustules erupt within 10-14 days after infection.
  • Free moisture on the leaves and an optimal temperature (10-15°C) are required for infection.
  • The disease can cause up to 25% yield loss.

Managment-

 

  • Destroy volunteer wheat plants.
  • Crop rotation is very important in the case of yellow spot.
  • Growing resistant varieties is an economical and environmentally friendly way of disease reduction.
  • During the growing season active crop monitoring is very important for an early detection of diseases.
  • Avoid repeated use of fungicides with the same active ingredient.
  • Spray Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 320 gm/acre or Propiconazole 25% EC 240 ml/Acre

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Irrigation Management of Wheat

Irrigation management of wheat:- It is very important to irrigate on time to get a good harvest. Irrigation should be done at the time of Crown root Initiation and milking in the crop.

Irrigation management of wheat:-

  • It is very important to irrigate on time to get a good harvest.
  • Irrigation should be done at the time of crown root Initiation and milking in the crop.
  • If there is rain in the freezing weather, then you can also reduce irrigation. According to agricultural scientists, irrigation should be stopped for some time when the wind started moving.
  • Agriculture scientists also say that the water should not be stored for more than 12 hours in the field.
  • The first irrigation should be done after about 25 days of sowing in wheat cultivation. The second irrigation should be done approximately 60 days later and the third irrigation after about 80 days.

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How to control Armyworm/ Cutworm in Wheat

Control of Army Worm/ Cutworm in Wheat:- The primary symptom is defoliation of the plant. Larvae feed on leaves, chewing from the edges to the midrib, or on the heads of cereal plants……….

    • The primary symptom is defoliation of the plant.
    • Larvae feed on the leaves, chewing from the edges to the midrib, or on the head of cereal plants.
    • Heavy infestations can be very destructive; larvae may climb the plant. Some species may be found feeding at the soil surface, others, underground feeding on roots, and then there are some who feed inside the stem.
    • The armyworm feeds during dawn and dusk period as it is actually shy of sunlight.


    Management –

    • Look for larvae and signs of damage beginning in early spring. Caterpillars will often be found feeding on the undersides of leaves and on fresh growth. Handpick the worms you discover and don’t be tempted to crush them between your thumbs. Instead, drop them in a bucket of soapy water. 
    • Use 4-5 bird perches to attract birds.
    • Spray Emamectin Benzoate 5% SG @ 100 Gm per acre.
    • Spray fipronil 5% SC @ 400 ml per acre.

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Management of Termites in Wheat

Management of Termites in Wheat:- Termites damage the crop soon after sowing and sometimes near maturity.
They feed on roots, stems of growing plants, even dead tissues of plant feeding on cellulose……

Management of Termites in Wheat:-

  • Termites damage the crop soon after sowing and sometimes near maturity.
  • They feed on roots, stems of growing plants, even dead tissues of plant feeding on cellulose.
  • The damaged plants dry up completely and are easily pulled out.
  • The plants damaged at later stages give rise to white ears.
  • Infestation is heavy under unirrigated conditions and in the fields where un-decomposed farmyard manure is applied before sowing.

Management –

  • Apply deep ploughing before sowing.
  • Use well rotten FYM in field.
  • Fill kerosine in mound of termite.
  • The seed should be treated with Chlorpyriphos (20% EC) @ 5 ml/kg of seed before sowing.
  • Broadcast Chlorpyriphos (20% EC)@ 1 litre/Acre with any fertilizer.

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Major Diseases and Their Control Measures of Wheat

(Hindi) गेंहू की प्रमुख बीमारियाँ एवं उनका नियंत्रण:-गेंहू की प्रमुख बीमारियों में कण्डुआ (रस्ट) रोग प्रमुख है| कंडुआ रोग 3 प्रकार का होता है | पीला कंडुआ, भूरा कंडुआ और काला कंडुआ | पीला कंडुआ:- यह रोग पकसीनिया स्ट्रीफोर्मियस नामक फफूंद से होता है |…

Major Diseases and Their Control Measures of Wheat:-

Rust is major disease of wheat crop and there are 4 types of rust found in wheat i.e. Yellow Rust (Strip Rust), Leaf Rust (Brown Rust), Black Rust (Stem Rust).

Symptom-

 

  • Yellow Rust (Strip Rust) :- Stripe rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis. It is easily distinguished from other wheat rusts by the orange-yellow spores, which produce small, closely packed pustules developing into stripes along the length of the leaf veins. The spores occur on the upper surface of the leaves, the leaf sheaths, awns and inside of the glumes.
  • Favourable Condition:- Stripe rust requires cool and wet conditions to infect the crop. Free moisture on the leaves and an optimal temperature (10-15°C) are required for infection. Pustules erupt within 10-14 days after infection. The disease can cause up to 25% yield loss.
  • Leaf Rust (Brown Rust):- Leaf rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia triticinia. The disease can also infect rye and triticale. Leaf rust produces reddish-orange coloured spores which occur in small, 1.5 mm, circular to oval-shaped pustules. These are found on the top surface of the leaves, distinguishing leaf rust from stem rust which is found on both surfaces of the leaf.
  • Favourable Condition:- The spores require 15 to 20º C temperature and free moisture (dew/rain/irrigation) on the leaves to successfully infect wheat. The first signs of the disease (sporulation) occur 10-14 days after infection. Removal of volunteer wheat plants, which forms a green bridge for the fungus through the summer, can eliminate or delay the onset of leaf rust.
  • Black Rust (Stem Rust):- Stem rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. In addition to wheat it can also attack barley, rye and triticale. Stem rust produces reddish-brown spore masses in oval, elongated or spindle-shaped pustules on the stems and leaves.Unlike leaf rust, pustules erupt through both sides of the leaves. Ruptured pustules release masses of stem rust spores, which are disseminated by wind and other carriers.
  • Favourable Condition:- Stem rust develops at higher temperatures than the other wheat rusts within a range of 18-30°C. Spores require free moisture (dew, rain or irrigation) and take up to six hours to infect the plant and pustules can be seen after 10-20 days of infection.

 

Management:-

  • Destroy volunteer wheat plants.
  • Crop rotation is very important in the case of yellow spot.
  • Growing resistant varieties is an economical and environmentally friendly way of disease reduction.
  • During the growing season active crop monitoring is very important for an early detection of diseases.
  • Avoid repeated use of fungicides with the same active ingredient.
  • Spray Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 320 gm/acre or Propiconazole 25% EC 240 ml/Acre.

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Nutrient Management in Wheat

Nutrient Management in Wheat:- Nutrients play an important role in the wheat production. Well rotted farmyard manure (FYM) or compost should be applied at the rate of 15 to 20 tons/he. After every two years. The FYM and compost will keep the soil physical properties in good condition-

Nutrient Management in Wheat:- Nutrients play an important role in the wheat production. Well rotted farmyard manure (FYM) or compost should be applied at the rate of 15 to 20 tons/ha. after every two years. The FYM and compost will keep the soil physical properties in good condition-

  • Apply well rotten FYM compost 15-20 ton per hac.in every 2 year interval.
  • Use 88 kg Urea, 160 Kg SSP and 40 kg MOP per Acre.
  • Apply urea in below three doses.
  1. 44 kg quantity during seed sowing.
  2. 22 kg during the first irrigation.
  3. Remain 22 kg dose during second irrigation.
  • If the full quantity of phosphorus is added in Kharif season, then add half the amount of phosphorus in Rabi.
  • When you have minimum or two irrigation may be used 175:250:35-40 Kg/hac. quantity of Urea, SSP and MOP.
  • Use full quantity of NPK at a time of basal dose on unirregated condition.
  • If wheat sowing are done in mid-December, then 25% of the nitrogen should be reduced.

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