Maturity index of wheat

  • The crop is harvested when the grains become hard and the straw becomes yellow dry and brittle.
  • Cereals are harvested at about 15 percent of the moisture in the grain.
  • Wheat should be yellow at the time of wheat harvest.
  • Wheat harvesting is done at 110-130 days after sowing.

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Management of Black Rust disease in Wheat

  • Pustules can be seen after 10-20 days of infection.
  • In addition to wheat it can also attack barley, rye and triticale.
  • Black rust produces reddish-brown spore masses in oval, elongated or spindle-shaped pustules on the stems and leaves.
  • Unlike leaf rust, pustules erupt through both sides of the leaves.
  • Ruptured pustules release masses of stem rust spores.
  • Black rust develops at higher temperatures than the other wheat rusts within a range of 18-30°C.

Management-

  • Destroy volunteer wheat plants. Crop rotation is very important.
  • Growing resistant varieties is an economical and environmentally friendly way of disease reduction.
  • During the growing season, active crop monitoring is very important for an early detection of diseases.
  • Avoid repeated use of fungicides with the same active ingredient.
  • Spray Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 320 gm/acre or Propiconazole 25% EC 240 gm/acre.

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Management of Yellow Rust disease in Wheat

  • Stripe rust is caused by the fungus.
  • It is easily distinguished from other wheat rusts by the orange-yellow spores.
  • Which produce small, closely packed pustules developing into stripes along the length of the leaf veins.
  • The spores occur on the upper surface of the leaves, the leaf sheaths, awns and inside of the glumes.
  • Pustules erupt within 10-14 days after infection.
  • Free moisture on the leaves and an optimal temperature (10-15°C) are required for infection.
  • The disease can cause up to 25% yield loss.

Managment-

 

  • Destroy volunteer wheat plants.
  • Crop rotation is very important in the case of yellow spot.
  • Growing resistant varieties is an economical and environmentally friendly way of disease reduction.
  • During the growing season active crop monitoring is very important for an early detection of diseases.
  • Avoid repeated use of fungicides with the same active ingredient.
  • Spray Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 320 gm/acre or Propiconazole 25% EC 240 ml/Acre

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Irrigation Management of Wheat

Irrigation management of wheat:-

  • It is very important to irrigate on time to get a good harvest.
  • Irrigation should be done at the time of crown root Initiation and milking in the crop.
  • If there is rain in the freezing weather, then you can also reduce irrigation. According to agricultural scientists, irrigation should be stopped for some time when the wind started moving.
  • Agriculture scientists also say that the water should not be stored for more than 12 hours in the field.
  • The first irrigation should be done after about 25 days of sowing in wheat cultivation. The second irrigation should be done approximately 60 days later and the third irrigation after about 80 days.

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Major Diseases and Their Control Measures of Wheat

Major Diseases and Their Control Measures of Wheat:-

Rust is major disease of wheat crop and there are 4 types of rust found in wheat i.e. Yellow Rust (Strip Rust), Leaf Rust (Brown Rust), Black Rust (Stem Rust).

Symptom-

 

  • Yellow Rust (Strip Rust) :- Stripe rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis. It is easily distinguished from other wheat rusts by the orange-yellow spores, which produce small, closely packed pustules developing into stripes along the length of the leaf veins. The spores occur on the upper surface of the leaves, the leaf sheaths, awns and inside of the glumes.
  • Favourable Condition:- Stripe rust requires cool and wet conditions to infect the crop. Free moisture on the leaves and an optimal temperature (10-15°C) are required for infection. Pustules erupt within 10-14 days after infection. The disease can cause up to 25% yield loss.
  • Leaf Rust (Brown Rust):- Leaf rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia triticinia. The disease can also infect rye and triticale. Leaf rust produces reddish-orange coloured spores which occur in small, 1.5 mm, circular to oval-shaped pustules. These are found on the top surface of the leaves, distinguishing leaf rust from stem rust which is found on both surfaces of the leaf.
  • Favourable Condition:- The spores require 15 to 20º C temperature and free moisture (dew/rain/irrigation) on the leaves to successfully infect wheat. The first signs of the disease (sporulation) occur 10-14 days after infection. Removal of volunteer wheat plants, which forms a green bridge for the fungus through the summer, can eliminate or delay the onset of leaf rust.
  • Black Rust (Stem Rust):- Stem rust is caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. In addition to wheat it can also attack barley, rye and triticale. Stem rust produces reddish-brown spore masses in oval, elongated or spindle-shaped pustules on the stems and leaves.Unlike leaf rust, pustules erupt through both sides of the leaves. Ruptured pustules release masses of stem rust spores, which are disseminated by wind and other carriers.
  • Favourable Condition:- Stem rust develops at higher temperatures than the other wheat rusts within a range of 18-30°C. Spores require free moisture (dew, rain or irrigation) and take up to six hours to infect the plant and pustules can be seen after 10-20 days of infection.

 

Management:-

  • Destroy volunteer wheat plants.
  • Crop rotation is very important in the case of yellow spot.
  • Growing resistant varieties is an economical and environmentally friendly way of disease reduction.
  • During the growing season active crop monitoring is very important for an early detection of diseases.
  • Avoid repeated use of fungicides with the same active ingredient.
  • Spray Kasugamycin 5% + Copper Oxychloride 45% WP 320 gm/acre or Propiconazole 25% EC 240 ml/Acre.

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Nutrient Management in Wheat

Nutrient Management in Wheat:- Nutrients play an important role in the wheat production. Well rotted farmyard manure (FYM) or compost should be applied at the rate of 15 to 20 tons/ha. after every two years. The FYM and compost will keep the soil physical properties in good condition-

  • Apply well rotten FYM compost 15-20 ton per hac.in every 2 year interval.
  • Use 88 kg Urea, 160 Kg SSP and 40 kg MOP per Acre.
  • Apply urea in below three doses.
  1. 44 kg quantity during seed sowing.
  2. 22 kg during the first irrigation.
  3. Remain 22 kg dose during second irrigation.
  • If the full quantity of phosphorus is added in Kharif season, then add half the amount of phosphorus in Rabi.
  • When you have minimum or two irrigation may be used 175:250:35-40 Kg/hac. quantity of Urea, SSP and MOP.
  • Use full quantity of NPK at a time of basal dose on unirregated condition.
  • If wheat sowing are done in mid-December, then 25% of the nitrogen should be reduced.

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Soil Preparation and Sowing Time for Wheat

Soil Preparation and Sowing Time for Wheat:-

  • One summer deep ploughing followed by two or three harrowing with disc or tines and two or three planking should be given to prepare a well pulverized seed bed.
  • Suitable time of sowing
  • Dryland:- Mid October to first week of November.
  • Semi Irrigated:- First fortnightly of November.
  • Irrigated :- Second fortnightly of November.
  • Irrigated (Late):- Second fortnightly of December.

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Storage of Wheat

Storage of Wheat: –

  • There should be no more than 10-12% moisture in the grain for safe storage.
  • Clean the storages and chambers before storage and spray Malathiyan 50% solution on the walls and floor at 3 liters per 100 square meters.
  • After placing the grain in the buffer, the closet or in the room, the aluminum phosphide should be kept at 3 grams 2 tables per tonne.

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Suitable Climate for Wheat

Suitable Climate for Wheat:-

  • Wheat is mainly a cold and arid climate crop, so during the crop planting From 20 to 22º C, Optimal tempreture 25ºC in the time of Vegetative growth and from 14 to 15º C at the time of ripening the temperature is excellent.
  • When the temperature is high, the crop rises quickly and the yield decreases.
  • There is a lot of damage to the crop from frost.
  • When the earring gets frosts, the seeds lose germination power and its development stops.
  • In small days, the growth of leaves and tillers is high, while the day starts to rise with the earring. For its cultivation, 60-100 cm. annual rainfall areas are suitable.
  • For the growth of plants, 50-60 percent humidity has been found suitable in the atmosphere. The cold winter and warm summers are considered suitable for the better crop of wheat.

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Seed treatment of wheat

Seed treatment of wheat:-

  • Wheat should be treated with carboxin 37.5% + Thiram 37.5% or Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% at the rate of 2.5 gm per kg seed or Tebuconazole DS @ 1 Gm per kg seed before sowing avoid fungal diseases like root rot, Loose smut, Flag smut and other.
  • For protection from termite should be treated with Cloropyrifos 20% @ 4 Ml per kg seed.

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